I had the chance to attend the AERE’s Summer Conference last weekend (30th and 31st of May). It was a very interesting experience, not only for the venue (Lake Tahoe was beautiful), but also for the opportunity to meet and chat with environmental economists from the left side of the Atlantic.
But since this is a blog dedicated to using R, I decided to do some text analysis of this year’s conference presentations in R. The idea is to give an overview of which themes were discussed this year by looking at the title of presentations.
I found a really nice tutorial, especially relevant for those who need or are curious about text analysis. It can be found here.
This year there were 320 presentations in 82 parallel sessions. The program of the conference can be found here.
For this exercise I will be using three packages that I should install being my first time using them:
install.packages("dplyr") install.packages("tidytext") install.packages("ggplot2")
As usual, we start by importing the data. However, this time the data (or rather unit of analysis) is text instead of numeric data. In order to analyze the text, the data should be in the format of a vector. I extracted the presentation titles from the AERE website and clean the data. Then, I created a vector called aere_summer_conference. Each element of this vector is a presentation title. You should just copy and paste the vector below to replicate my results.
aere_summer_conference <- c("Spatial Spillovers from Conservation Policies in Common Property Resources", "Wind Energy and Agricultural Production -- Evidence from Farm-Level Data", "Flexible Buffer Systems: Enhancing Ecosystem Services and Expanding Agricultural Options in Riparian Areas ", "The Effect of Land Use Restrictions Protecting Endangered Species on Agricultural Land Values", "Short-Run and Long-Run Impacts of Environmental Regulations on Firm Productivity: Evidence from the U.S. Electricity Sector, 1938-1999 (RANKING = 1)", "The Economics of Regulatory Repeal ", "The Global Consumer Incidence of Carbon Pricing: Evidence from Trade", "Local incidence of a Massachusetts carbon tax", "FOOD AND FRAUD: ON THE CODFATHER AND HARVEST MISLABELING", "Estimating stock abundance effects when abundance is unobservable: An application to the Alaska longline halibut fishery", "Running to Stand Still: Common Property Induced Inertia in the Spatial Commons", "A new procedure for valuing and maintaining a viable bycatch stock", "Using a welfare-based metric to better incentivize electric utilities for high-renewable power systems", "The Value of Renewables: Observational and Experimental Evidence from the United States and Europe ", "Gone with the Wind: Consumer Surplus from Renewable Generation ", "Access to Alternatives: Increasing Rooftop Solar Adoption with Online Platforms", "Monitoring, Politics and Deforestation in the Amazon", "Can communal resource monitoring save the commons? Evidence from community-managed forests in Uganda", "Property Rights and Resource Extraction: Evidence from Deforestation in the Amazon", "Deforestation in Common Property Resources: The Case of Community Forest Management in Mexico", "Is Time or Comfort Preferred for Taking Shared Transit? Evidence from a Field Experiment", "Natural hazards nudges: Testing personalized information and social comparisons in the context of wildfire risk", "Time and Risk Preferences: A large, incentivized experiment", "Voting and information: Evidence from a large survey and randomized controlled trial", "Incentives and Liability Rules for Wildfire Risk Management", "Wildfire Risk, Salience and Housing Development in the Wildland-Urban Interface", "Inequality and Government Responsiveness: Evidence from Salient Wildfire Events", "The Impact of Wildfires on Housing Markets in California", "The Margins of Response to Road Use Prices", "Speeding Up Innovation: Rethinking the performance and fuel economy tradeoff for light-duty vehicles under regulation", "Mobility as a Service: A new open data policy for a greener urban future", "Is Uber's Price Right? Congestion vs Market Power in the Ride-hailing Industry", "Clean Energy Investment and Credit Rationing", "How do lenders price energy efficiency ? Evidence from posted interest rates for consumer credit in France", "The Impact of State Renewable Portfolio Standards on Electric Utilities' Stock Returns", "Does Relocation Affect the Environmental Performance of Toxic Facilities", "Credit Market Development and Resource Extraction: Evidence from Global Fisheries", "Non-Parametric Tests of the Tragedy of the Commons", "Spatial Externalities in Groundwater Extraction: Evidence from California Agriculture", "Long-run projections of economic growth to support social cost of carbon estimation", "The climate and ocean in the social cost of carbon", "Discounting approach for the social cost of carbon", "Discounting for public cost-benefit analysis", "Early Childhood Lead Exposure and Educational Trajectory into Adolescence", "How do Coarse Particles and Ozone Affect Children's Health? Evidence from South Korea ", "The Effects of Pollution on High Stakes Accountability School Grades and Student Achievement", "China's Unconventional Nationwide CO2 Emissions Trading System: Tradeoffs between Cost and Distributional Objectives", "Output and Attribute-Based Carbon Regulation Under Uncertainty", "Emissions floor price options for EU member states", "Regulating Stock Externalities", "Correlated Pollutants, Avoidance and Local Environmental Policy: Analyzing California's Ocean Going- Vessel Fuel Rule", "Regulatory Spillover and Climate Co-benefits: Evidence from the New Source Review", "The Effect of Port Traffic and Regulation on Air Pollution", "P2 Participation as an Indirect Source of Intra-firm Pollution Leakage", "Bioeconomic Grizzly Bear Management", "Determinants of Avian Species Biodiversity in the United States: The Role of Land-Use Change and Pesticide Use", "Biodiversity and Economic Land Use", "Optimal spatial-dynamic management to minimize the damages caused by aquatic invasive species", "Learning Where to Drill: Drilling Decisions and Geological Quality in the Haynesville Shale", "Oil and gas well targeting: Associated gas, wet gas, and the implications for supply and methane emissions", "Setbacks as policy instruments: Evidence from Colorado oil and gas wells", "The Effects of Land Ownership on Wind Energy Development", "The Hidden Cost of Electricity Outages: Air Pollution in Delhi", "Social capital and choice of clean cooking and safe sanitation in India", "The Health Impacts of Coal-Fired Power Plants in India and the Co-benefits of GHG Reductions", "Estimating the Pollution and Health Impacts of Renewable Energy Investments in Chile", "The Value of a Statistical Life: Evidence from Seniors' Medical Expenditures", "Age Variation in the Income Elasticity of the Value of a Statistical Life", "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Residential Sorting and Health Capital", "Biases of using aggregate data to infer individual voting preferences", "The Effect of Pollution on Aggressive Behavior: Evidence From Wildfire Smoke and Crime ", "The Cost of Coal by Wire: Power Plant Pollution and Child Health in India", "Blowing Smoke: Health Impacts of Wildfire Plume Dynamics", "Air pollution and cardiovascular health: evidence from agricultural fires in India", "Does Increasing Block Pricing Decrease Residential Electricity Use?", "Information Treatments, Attention, and the Energy Efficiency Gap: Evidence from China", "Environmental and Social Benefits of Time of Use Electricity Pricing", "The value of water quality: separating amenity and recreational benefits", "Testing the water: Drinking water quality, public notification, and school outcomes ", "Do nonlinear prices work? Distributional and efficiency consequences of budget-based water rates", "Weather Fluctuations, Expectation Formation, and Short-run Behavioral Responses to Climate Change", "Drought Shocks, Household Risk Sharing and Occupational Choices", "Climate Adaptation and Conservation Agriculture Among Peruvian Farmers", "Agricultural Adaptation to Climatic Changes, and the Critical Role of Water", "When Threats Become Credible: A Natural Experiment of Environmental Enforcement from Florida", "When the regulator goes home: Effectiveness of environmental oversight", "Testing the Emission Reductions Claims of CDM Projects using Benford's Law", "Cold Case: The forensic economics of energy efficiency labels for domestic refrigeration appliances ", "Empirical Structural Analysis of Value Generation Under Rights-Based Fisheries Management", "An Age-structured Backward-bending Supply of Fish: Implications for Conservation of Bluefin Tuna ", "When are Commercial Fisheries a Resource Curse? Lessons from a Tribal Fishery", "Walking a Tight Line: Management of a New Arctic Fishery In the Presence of Spatially Differentiated Ecological-Economic Externalities", "Thermal Storage and Electrification of Residential Energy Use", "The Effect of California's Cap and Trade Program on Carbon Emissions Reductions", "Costs of misallocation in Indian electricity supply", "Energy and Misallocation: Evidence from Brazil", "Identifying Linkages between Natural Resources Management and Economic Growth: An Application in Uganda", "Deforestation Policies: a Tool to Shape Productivity?", "Assessing the private and social benefits of forest concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve", "Over-exploitation of natural resources is followed by inevitable declines in economic growth and discount rate", "Estimating the value of threatened species abundance dynamics: a structural econometric approach using choice experiment data", "Variable uncertainty in spatially informed discrete choice models", "Aversion to environmental risk in stated preference: Implications for benefit transfer and scope response", "Reduce, Reuse, Redeem: Consumer Valuation of California Recycling Options", "School Bus Emissions, Student Health, and Academic Performance", "Toxic air releases and child cognition in the ECLS-B cohort", "Heat and Learning: Environmental Determinants of Educational Inequality", "Labor Supply in a Warmer World: The Impact of Climate Change on the Global Workforce ", "The Local Economic Impact of Natural Disasters", "Moving to Lower Ground: Flood Insurance Subsidies and Floodplain Development", "Private Flood Insurance and the NFIP Risk Pool: Evidence from the Opening of the Florida Market", "Floods, shifting risk perceptions and property prices", "How Do Passenger Vehicle Greenhouse Standards Affect Vehicle Quality?", "Consumer Myopia in Electric Vehicle Purchases?", "Quasi-Experimental Evidence on Consumer Myopia in Vehicle Purchases", "Optimal Corrective Taxes with Untaxable Externalities: Evidence from Vehicle Pollution Standards", "The Welfare Effects of Information Nudges - Theory and Evidence from a Large-Scale Natural Field Experiment", "Do behavioral nudges interact with prevailing economic incentives? Pairing experimental and quasi- experimental evidence from water consumption", "Motivation, Signaling and Peer Effects: Evidence from Rooftop Solar and Household Green Power Purchases", "A theoretical framework explaining the mechanisms of nudging ", "The Role of Occupational Affiliation on the Incidence of Environmental Regulations", "Evaluating Alternative Options for Managing Nitrogen Losses from Corn Production", "Can the Yellow Vests Become Green? Quantifying the Equity and Efficiency Effects of Carbon Tax Policy", "Fracking, Coal and Air Quality", "Does Resource Ownership Matter? Oil and Gas Royalties and the Income Effect of Extraction", "Dutch Disease Resistance: Evidence from Indonesian Firms", "Can Learning Explain Deterrence? Evidence from Oil & Gas Production", "Is Global Agriculture Growing More Resilient to Climate?", "Adoption of Drought-Tolerant Corn as Adaptation to Climate Change: Current U.S. Adoption and Future Prospects", "Ricardian analysis using observed farmland transactions", "Estimating climate change damages in data scarce and non-competitive settings: an application to the agriculture of Mexico", "TIGHTER EMISSIONS CAPS OR TARGETED REGULATIONS? REDUCING HIGH OZONE-EVENTS IN THE EASTERN US", "Cap and Trade and CO2 Emissions: Was the U.S. RGGI Effective?", "When do Environmental Regulations Backfire? Onsite Electricity Generation, Energy Efficiency and Instrument Selection", "Using the Market to Balance Short and Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases: A New Permit-Based Approach to Capture Time-Varying Climate Impacts", "Implications of lifestyle change on household carbon dioxide emissions: A time-use perspective", "Accounting for the Structure of Property Rights in the Economics Impacts of Climate Change", "Hedging Climate Change: Yield Volatility, Crop Choice and Trade", "Effects of Heat Waves on Economic Growth", "Pollution and the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital: Evidence from the 1970 Clean Air Act", "DIRTY DENSITY: AIR QUALITY AND THE DENSITY OF AMERICAN CITIES", "Recreational Damages from Air Pollution: Evidence from Secondary Marketplace Ticket Microdata for National Football League Games", "Adaptation to Environmental Change: Agriculture and the Unexpected Incidence of the Acid Rain Program", "Sauce for the Goose is not Sauce for the Gander: Assessing the Heterogeneous Impact of Climate Change on Bird Biodiversity in the United States", "Ecosystem Service Impacts of Ecological Disruption: Evidence from Malaria Incidence in Central America", "Quantifying the role of U.S. plant imports driving non-native insect invasions over 150 years", "Multidimensional risk diversification for invasive species management: A quasi-dynamic portfolio theory approach", "Gender and effects of information on energy-related choices", "Impacts of Smart Meters on Losses in Electricity Distribution, Electricity Reliability, and Household Investments in Energy Efficiency", "Closing the energy efficiency gap in industrial firms: The role of management practices", "Norms and Nudges: Identity Economics and Consumer Preferences for Energy Efficiency", "Fracking, farmers, and rural electrification in India", "The Price of Power: Costs of Political Corruption in Indian Electricity", "Understanding Demand for Electricity on the Intensive Margin in Rural Rwanda and Kenya", "Willingness to Pay for Electricity Access in Extreme Poverty: Evidence from Sub Saharan Africa ", "Quantitative Similarity in Benefit Transfer", "Comprehensive Recreation Demand Modelling with Nonlinear Marginal Utility of Trips: The Case of Outdoor Recreation in Canada", "Finding a Best Conservation Park Entry Fee for Kruger National Park", "The Economic Value of Rock Climbing in Smith Rock: An Individual Travel Cost Approach", "Resource Extraction and Local Government: The Fiscal Consequences of the Shale Boom ", "Resource booms and drug abuse in the United States", "STI Transmission and the Fracking Boom", "The social cost of leaded gasoline: evidence from regulatory exemptions", "Anticipating Mother Nature", "Estimating the Direct and Indirect Impact of Typhoons on Plant Performance: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturers", "Local Lending Institutions and Financial Recovery after a Natural Disaster", "Learning-By-Dying", "The Environmental Bias of Trade Policy", "Environmental Policy Instrument Choice and International Trade", "Coercive Trade Agreements for Supplying Global Public Goods", "SS_MandA", "Do pollution markets harm low income and minority communities?", "Efficiency Wages, Unemployment, and Environmental Policy", "Pollution and Unemployment over the Business Cycle", "Energy tax refunds and firm competitiveness in Finland's energy intensive industries", "Land Tenure and Irrigation on an American Indian Reservation", "Water Markets and Climate Change Adaptation: Micro-level Evidence on Agricultural Water Demand", "Adapting to Water Scarcity: Evidence from Irrigated Agriculture", "Market Expectations About Climate Change", "Unpacking Property Owners' Shoreline Modification Decisions: Survey Evidence from Coastal Virginia", "Information and defensive action: Evidence from daily weather forecasts", "Hold the Line: Modeling Private Coastal Adaptation through Shoreline Armoring Decisions", "Does irrigation mitigate the effect of climate shocks on conflict? Evidence from Indonesia", "Assistance Needed? The Willingness to Pay for Flood Insurance", "Living on the Stormy Side? Tropical Cyclones and Human Settlements", "Climate Change and Regional Migration in the U.S.", "Local Economic Impacts of Federal Protected Lands", "Self-Regulation in the Non-Profit Sector: The Case of Land Trusts", "The Use of Recreational Hunters in Wildlife Disease Management: Behavior and Incentives ", "Stranded: The Effects of Inaccessible Public Land on Local Economies in the American West", "Market Size and Market Power: Evidence from the Texas Electricity Market", "Diagnosis of Market Symptoms by Artificial Intelligence: A Case Study of Changing Market Integration in Electricity Market", "Putting the heat on electricity markets - on the direct and indirect costs of climate change", "The Cost of Adapting to Climate Change through the Grid", "Environmental Policy and Labor Demand in China", "On the Heterogeneous Quality of Chinese Air Pollution Data", "The Ecological Footprint of Transportation Infrastructure", "Road to glory or highway to hell? Quantifying the trade-off between global road access and climate change mitigation", "The Effect of Non-binding Price Floors on the Price of Storable Assets: Emissions Permits and Agricultural Commodities", "Economic Decision-making, Judgment, and Destructive Behavior Under Thermal Stress", "Green assets in financial markets - Evidence from a laboratory experiment", "Conforming with norms of cooperation", "Health Consequences of Drought-Related Water Supply Policies: Evidence from São Paulo, Brazil", "Who is responsible for damaging the commons? Identifying polluters in continent-scale river networks", "The Nitrogen Legacy: Long-Term Effects of Water Pollution on Human Capital", "Agricultural Subsidies and Contaminated Spillovers: The Health Effects of Agricultural Water Pollution in China", "Money Growing on Trees: A Payment for Environmental Services Classroom Game", "Disentangling the Sources of the Brazilian Miracle: The Impacts of Policy on Deforestation in the Amazon", "Civil conflict reduced the impact of Colombia's protected areas", "Evidence on the Sustainability of Mexico's Voluntary Conservation Payments.", "Revealing Auto-Manufacturers' Implicit Pricing Strategy under the Reformed CAFE Standard: A Reduced- Form Approach", "The Effect of Vehicle Ownership Restrictions on Travel Behavior: Evidence from the Beijing License Plate Lottery", "The Effect of Battery Innovation on Electric Vehicle Sales and Greenhouse Gas Emissions", "Technology shocks to public transit and the policy implications", "The King is dead, long live the King? The effect of power plants on housing prices in the age of coal-switching", "Living on the Edge: How does Your House Price Respond to Urban Hazard Risks?", "The Effect of Urban Forestry on Housing Price and Gentrification", "The Housing Market Impacts of Noise Pollution: Evidence from a Natural Experiment", "Distributional Effects of Environmental Regulation across Workers: A General-Equilibrium Analysis", "Unemployment, Labor Mobility, and Climate Policy", "Capturing Energy-Water-Economy Interactions in an Integrated Modeling Framework: the economic impacts of water shortages on the Western power grid", "Implications of Residential Energy Pricing for Energy Substitution and Welfare", "Instrument Choice, Irreversible Investments, and the Welfare Implications of Pricing Carbon", "Carbon Price Pass-Through in Electricity Markets", "Pigou Creates Losers: On the Implausibility of Achieving Pareto Improvements from Pigouvian Taxation", "Setting carbon taxes (or abatement credits) using declining discount rates: Implications for investment- based mitigation", "HEDGING AGAINST UNCERTAINTIES IN COST OF GREENHOUSE GAS MITIGATION: THE CASE OF US BIOFUELS", "Cumulative carbon emissions and economic policy: in search of general principles", "A Bayesian estimation of economic growth uncertainty and its implications for the climate system", "An Emission Tax Within an Emission-Capped Region is Not Necessarily Welfare Reducing: Lessons from the New York Carbon Adder", "Estimating the Fuel-tax Elasticity of Vehicle Miles Travelled from Aggregate Data.", "How Does the Use of Carbon Tax Revenue Influence Political Support? Evidence from Washington State", "Agglomeration Economies and the Effectiveness of Environmental Regulation", "Structural Behavioral Models for Rights-Based Fisheries", "Property rights lead to protection of global marine resources", "Renewable resource federalism: Trade-offs between centralized and decentralized control", "Grandfathering by merit", "The Welfare Costs of Misaligned Incentives: Energy Inefficiency and the Principal-Agent Problem", "Intensive and Extensive Margin Responses in Electricity Conservation: How Households Respond to Financial Rewards", "Decomposing the Wedge: Mechanisms Driving the Gap Between Projected and Realized Returns in Energy Efficiency Programs", "Quantifying the Behavioral Response to an Energy Efficiency Upgrade", "Too hot to focus: the mean and distributional effects of heat on labor productivity", "Temperatures, Productivity, and Firm Competitiveness in Developing Countries: Evidence from Côte d'Ivoire", "Labor market adjustment under extreme heat shocks: evidence from Brazil", "Plantation booms and structural change: the impact of the Indonesian palm oil expansion on manufacturing firm TFP", "The Economics of 'Conservation Debt': A Natural Capital Approach to Revealed Valuation of Ecological Dynamics", "Empirically valuing natural capital", "What is a non-market valuation study worth: A demonstration using a meta-analysis of water quality values", "Preference heterogeneity and willingness to pay for environmental health technologies", "Water demand response to un-conservation pricing", "From Water Cops to Smart Meters: Designing Water Conservation Policy in the New Era of Automated Enforcement", "Dueling Drought-mitigation Efforts: The Role of Water Use Efficiency and Conservation Policies on Effluent Generation and Quality", "Who signs up for free raingardens? Distributional and capitalization effects of green infrastructure subsidies", "Learning from Public Information under Conflicting Signals: Evidence from U.S. Tornado Warnings ", "How Beliefs Change Following a Natural Disaster: Evidence From Wind Insurance Data", "Natural Disasters and Price Gouging: Evidence from Gasoline Sales before and after US Hurricanes ", "Pricing Poseidon: Extreme Weather Uncertainty and Firm Return Dynamics", "Sober optimism and the formation of international environmental agreements", "Global Economic and Environmental Outcomes of the Paris Agreement", "International Environmental Agreements and Directed Technological Change: Evidence from the Ozone Regime", "Climate Agreements with Asymmetric Countries: Theory and Experimental Results", "Open Access vs Restricted Access in a General Equilibrium with Mobile Capital", "To Build or Not to Build? Capital Stocks and Climate Policy", "Seawalls and Stilts: A Quantitative Macro Study of Climate Adaptation", "Welfare consequences of climate policy in different technology futures: Implications for environmental- technology policy", "Designing and Evaluating a Carbon Tax Adjustment Mechanism", "Carbon Tax Review and Updating ", "Managing Environmental Uncertainty under a Carbon Tax: A Perspective from the Policy World", "Estimating the adaptive benefits of water market reform for Californian irrigated agriculture", "Coastal land use change: agricultural adaptation to saltwater intrusion and sea level rise", "Adaptation and the Envelope Theorem", "Positive and Preventive Checks on Population in a Changing Climate", "Climate Change Uncertainty, and Learning", "Characterization of the First Stage Measurement Error in Climate Impact Models", "Accounting for Unobservable Heterogeneity in Cross Section Using Spatial First Differences", "Climate econometrics: Can the panel approach account for long-run adaptation?", "Land Market Valuation of Groundwater Availability", "What Drives (No) Adoption of New Irrigation Technologies: A Structural Dynamic Estimation Approach", "A Water Portfolio Model with Time-Varying Risk in the Presence of Climate Change", "Complements and Substitutes? Crop Insurance and Groundwater Extraction in the Ogallala Aquifer Region ", "Does the U.S. Pipeline Infrastructure Promote Clean Energy Use? Evidence from the EPA's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards", "How Clean is Clean Coal? An Empirical Assessment of a Billion Dollar Tax Credit", "Hard NOx: Identifying Spillovers and Operational Inefficiencies Within the EPA NOx Budget Trading Program", "The Effectiveness and Incidence of Litigation as a Policy Instrument: The Case of New Source Review Settlements", "Integrating Climate Science and Adaptation Policy: The Effects of Uncertainty on Coastal Housing Markets", "ENERGY TRANSITION UNDER THE RISK OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CATASTROPHE: A TWO-SECTOR APPROACH IN A RIGID ECONOMY", "Climate policy tipping and stranded carbon assets", "Labor Market Effects of In-Kind Food Subsidies", "WATER AND CONCRETE: COMPLEMENTARITY (NOT SUBSTITUTION) BETWEEN NATURAL AND PRODUCED CAPITAL", "Economic and Policy Considerations for Large Scale Investments in Natural Climate Solutions to Achieve Climate Stabilization Goals", "The Political Economy of Electricity Rates", "So You Want to be Relevant: A Policy Analyst's Reflections on Academic Literature", "Police Brutality and Extreme Temperatures ", "Distribution of Environmental Damages: The Case of the Temperature-Violence Relationship in Mexico", "Temperature & Children's Nutrition: Evidence from West Africa", "Understanding Interpersonal Violence with Warm Temperatures in Mexico", "Costs of Labor Market Adjustment to News", "Updating our understanding of exposure and access: Using cellphone movement data to reduce mismeasurement and bias", "How Much Does Standardized Time Change Behavior?: Evidence from Twitter", "Environmental constraints on elite worker productivity: evidence from professional tennis", "Drinking Water and Infant Health: Evidence from Contaminant Levels in California", "The Effect of Incomplete Enforcement Information on Ambient Pollution Levels: Evidence from the Clean Water Act", "Cleaning Up the Rust Belt: Housing Market Impacts of Removing Legacy Pollutants ", "Water Quality, Policy Diffusion Effects and Farmers Behavior", "Community Resilience to Natural Disasters: The Effects of Environmental Changes on Homeownership Rates and Community Quality", "Housing Discrimination and the Pollution Exposure Gap in the United States", "Bag Leakage: The Effect of Disposable Carryout Bag Regulations on Unregulated Bags", "Willingness-to-pay for construction noise abatement in Singapore: Evidence from a choice modelling survey", "Natural Gas Transportation Price Regulation and the Dash for Gas", "Correcting heterogeneous externalities: Evidence from local fuel price controls", "Formative Experiences and the Price of Gasoline", "Gasoline Price, Driving Behavior, and Demand for Gasoline: Evidence from Fueling Level Micro Data", "Sharing is not caring: the case of transboundary fisheries", "Networks and Policy-Induced Spillovers: Defining the Scope for Ecosystem-Based Fishery Management", "The Economics of Marine Conservation", "Do environmental disasters change the regulator's approach?", "Regulating Hazardous Wastes under U.S. Environmental Federalism: The Role of State Resources", "Citizen complaints, regulator behavior, and air pollution: Evidence from the CAA in Texas", "If you see (or smell) something, say something: Citizen complaints and regulation of oil and gas well" )
Following up on the tutorial I mentioned, I need to transform the vector of presentation titles into a tidy text object. To do so, I just typed:
library(dplyr) text_df <- tibble(line = 1:319, text = aere_summer_conference)
In the line= option, I had to specify the length of the aere_summer_conference vector, which is 319 rows.
Next, I need to transform the text_df dataframe into an object with a single word per row. That way, the package can analyse word frequency and other statistics.
library(tidytext) text_df <- text_df %>% unnest_tokens(word, text)
After this script, I now have one word per row and we can analyze the text_df object. However, before I do, I followed up on the tip from the tutorial and chose to omit common and uninteresting words from the dataframe. For example, words such as of, and, to, etc, are not very interesting for this analysis.
I do so by importing another dataset called stop_words and using the anti_join option.
data(stop_words) text_df <- text_df %>% anti_join(stop_words)
Now I have a clean list of all the words of all the AERE presentations.
What I want to do is to check what are the most common words in the titles of presentations. I am curious what were the most popular themes and at kind of papers got accepted this year. This is the needed command:
text_df %>% count(word, sort = TRUE)
And the result was the following:
# A tibble: 1,071 x 2 word n <chr> <int> 1 evidence 62 2 climate 34 3 environmental 30 4 water 25 5 change 24 6 energy 24 7 policy 24 8 pollution 20 9 carbon 19 10 market 19 # ... with 1,061 more rows
Besides the obvious “evidence” keyword, it seems like a lot of presentations were about “climate”, “pollution” and “carbon”. Climate appeared in the presentations’ titles 34 times. Given the recent focus on climate change mitigation in popular media, that is not surprising. Other popular topics included water (25 times) and energy (24 times).
To finish off, I will leave a nice graph summarizing word frequency. I only included in this graph words that have appeared more than 15 times (filter(n > 15)).
library(ggplot2) text_df %>% count(word, sort = TRUE) %>% filter(n > 15) %>% mutate(word = reorder(word, n)) %>% ggplot(aes(word, n)) + geom_col() + xlab(NULL) + coord_flip()
Here is our graph:
This was a simple exercise, but it was interesting to know what text mining can do. Again, this book helped me a lot in these first steps into text mining.